Munich Agreement Countries
September 1938: Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France sign the Munich Agreement, under which Czechoslovakia must cede its border regions and defense zones (the so-called Sudetenland region) to Nazi Germany. German troops occupied these territories between 1 and 10 October 1938. After learning that areas inhabited by Poland were to be transferred to Germany, Poland issued a note to the Czechoslovak government in which it called for "the immediate conclusion of an agreement according to which Polish territory would be indisputably occupied by Polish troops; this was followed by agreement on referendums in districts where the Polish population was densely populated.  The slogan "On us, without us! (Czech: O nás bez nás!) summarizes the feelings of the people of Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia and the Czech Republic) towards the agreement. [Citation required] With the handover of the Sudetenland to Germany, Czechoslovakia (as the state has just been renamed) lost its defensive border with Germany and its fortifications. Without it, its independence became more nominal than real. Czechoslovakia also lost 70% of its steel industry, 70% of its electricity and 3.5 million citizens to Germany.  Sudeten Germans celebrated what they saw as their liberation. The impending war, it seemed, had been avoided. The agreement was widely welcomed. French Prime Minister Daladier did not believe, in the words of one scholar, that a European war was justified "to keep three million Germans under Czech sovereignty." But the same argument applies to Alsace-Lorraine – unlike the alliance between France and Czechoslovakia against German aggression.