The Cotonou Agreement In A Nutshell
Experts see the EPA dispute as the main obstacle to a new agreement. But it does not appear that the EU will give in. It would also be difficult: "A new agreement cannot fundamentally influence partnership agreements. These are independent international treaties that cannot be significantly changed by a new agreement," said expert DIE Keijzer. Instead, the EU would prefer to promise additional aid to facilitate African countries` trade with Europe: money for infrastructure or border management, for example. Perhaps the most radical amendment introduced by the Cotonou Agreement concerns trade cooperation. Since the first Lomé Convention in 1975, the EU has not granted reciprocal trade preferences to ACP countries. However, under the Cotonou Agreement, this system has been replaced by the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), a new regime that came into force in 2008. The new regime provides for reciprocal trade agreements, which means that not only does the EU grant duty-free access to its ACP export markets, but also that ACP countries grant duty-free access to their own markets for EU exports. It is the most comprehensive partnership agreement between developing countries and the EU, covering EU relations with 79 countries, 48 of them from sub-Saharan Africa. Under the new agreement, the EU can be more selective and flexible in allocating and using its development resources.
Endowments are based on an assessment of a country`s needs and performance and include the ability to regularly adjust financial resources. In practice, this means that more money can be paid to "good interpreters" and that the proportion of "bad interpreters" can be reduced. ... In the same year, members approved the Lomé Convention, a development aid package and a preferential trade agreement with many countries in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific. Members also attempted to jointly manage their exchange rates, which led to the creation of the European monetary system in 1979. The Interim EPA between the EU and the Pacific ACP countries was signed in July 2009 by Papua New Guinea and Fiji in December 2009. Papua New Guinea ratified it in May 2011. In July 2014, Fiji decided to begin provisional implementation of the agreement. Of the 14 Pacific countries, Papua New Guinea and Fiji account for the bulk of EU-Pacific trade. Also in July 2014, negotiations with the countries of the Southern African Development Community concluded successfully. The agreement was signed on 10 June 2016 in Kasane, Botswana.
It entered the provisional application on 10 October 2016. The EU funds most of its development programmes for ACP countries through the European Development Fund (EDF). These funds are not part of the EU`s overall budget. They are subject to internal agreement between the Member States meeting in the Council. African members of OACPS are also offended by the fact that the EU has negotiated EPAs with individual states. The African Union (AU) is trying to establish an African free trade area. But if different states have their own agreements with the EU, that makes it difficult. "These agreements have led to a great division and fragmentation of the African position," Carlos Lopes, the AU`s representative for relations with Europe, said in early June.
Five Generations of ACP-CE Agreements The new partnership agreement between the 15 Member States of the European Union (EU) and the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states marks five generations of agreements between sovereign ACP-CE states. It is the most important financial and political framework in the world for North-South cooperation. This particular partnership is characterized by its non-reciprocal trade advantages for ACP countries, including the unlimited entry into the market of 99% of industrial products and many other products, particularly for the least developed countries (LDCs), which are in the ACP 39 group. In addition, aid envelopes for each ACP country and region are regularly updated.